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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
 data       graph  M    files  public HadISST Average Sea Surface Temperature, 1°, Global, Monthly, 1870-present    ?   F   I   M   background (external link) RSS Subscribe
Met Office Hadley...  ?

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Grid
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Data restrictions: for academic research use only. Data are Crown copyright see (
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String CF-1.6, COARDS, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String john.kennedy at
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String Met Office Hadley Centre
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL description String HadISST 1.1 monthly average sea surface temperature
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double 179.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 89.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double -89.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_resolution double 1.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double 179.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -179.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_resolution double 1.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL history String 2017-01 Roy Mendelssohn ( downloaded from
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String Met Office Hadley Centre
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String centre, component, data, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Temperature > Sea Surface Temperature, hadisst, hadley, ice, latitude, longitude, met, month, monthly, ocean, oceans, office, sea, sea_surface_temperature, sst, surface, temperature, time, version
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords_vocabulary String GCMD Science Keywords
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String The data may be used and redistributed for free but is not intended
for legal use, since it may contain inaccuracies. Neither the data
Contributor, ERD, NOAA, nor the United States Government, nor any
of their employees or contractors, makes any warranty, express or
implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness, of this information.
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 89.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL references String Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell, D. P., Kent, E. C., Kaplan, A. Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century J. Geophys. Res.Vol. 108, No. D14, 4407 10.1029/2002JD002670
attribute NC_GLOBAL source String HadISST
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double -89.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v70
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String The Met Office Hadley Centre's sea ice and sea surface temperature (SST) data set, HadISST1, replaces the Global sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (GISST) data sets, and is a unique combination of monthly globally-complete fields of SST and sea ice concentration on a 1 degree latitude-longitude grid from 1870 to date.

WARNING: 10 March 2016: A detailed analysis of HadISST ( has identified a number of problems, some of which might limit the utility of the dataset for certain scientific applications, particularly where high resolution SST data or spatial gradients of SST are required. Thanks to Dudley Chelton and Craig Risien for bringing this to our attention and their detailed analysis.

The SST data are taken from the Met Office Marine Data Bank (MDB), which from 1982 onwards also includes data received through the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). In order to enhance data coverage, monthly median SSTs for 1871-1995 from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) (now ICOADS) were also used where there were no MDB data.

HadISST1 temperatures are reconstructed using a two stage reduced-space optimal interpolation procedure, followed by superposition of quality-improved gridded observations onto the reconstructions to restore local detail. SSTs near sea ice are estimated using statistical relationships between SST and sea ice concentration.

Data restrictions: for academic research use only.

Updates and supplementary information will be available from
attribute NC_GLOBAL supplementary_information String Updates and supplementary information will be available from
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_end String 2024-02-15T12:00:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_start String 1870-01-16T11:59:59Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String HadISST Average Sea Surface Temperature, 1°, Global, Monthly, 1870-present
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -179.5
dimension time   double nValues=1850, evenlySpaced=false, averageSpacing=30 days 10h 28m 29s
attribute time _CoordinateAxisType String Time
attribute time actual_range double -3.154334400864E9, 1.7079984E9
attribute time axis String T
attribute time calendar String gregorian
attribute time ioos_category String Time
attribute time long_name String Time
attribute time standard_name String time
attribute time time_origin String 01-JAN-1970 00:00:00
attribute time units String seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
dimension latitude   float nValues=180, evenlySpaced=true, averageSpacing=-1.0
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude actual_range float -89.5, 89.5
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
dimension longitude   float nValues=360, evenlySpaced=true, averageSpacing=1.0
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude actual_range float -179.5, 179.5
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable sst   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute sst _FillValue float -1.0E30
attribute sst cell_methods String time: lat: lon: mean
attribute sst colorBarMaximum double 32.0
attribute sst colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute sst ioos_category String Temperature
attribute sst long_name String sst
attribute sst missing_value float -1.0E30
attribute sst standard_name String sea_surface_temperature
attribute sst units String C

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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