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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL _NCProperties String version=1|netcdflibversion=|hdf5libversion=1.8.16
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Grid
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3, COARDS
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String Barbara.Muhling at
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultGraphQuery String sardine_GAM[(2013-04-30)][(30.1):(48.0)][(-133.9):(-115.5)]&.draw=surface&.vars=longitude%7Clatitude%7Csardine_GAM
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -115.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 48.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 30.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_resolution double 0.09999999999999999
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -115.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -133.9
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_resolution double 0.10000000000000003
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String The data may be used and redistributed for free but is not intended
for legal use, since it may contain inaccuracies. Neither the data
Contributor, ERD, NOAA, nor the United States Government, nor any
of their employees or contractors, makes any warranty, express or
implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness, of this information.
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 48.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 30.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v70
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Forage species such as Pacific sardine, northern anchovy, and market squid are critical ecological links between the planktonic food web and higher trophic levels in the California Current System, as well as supporting valuable fisheries. Environmental variability drives large fluctuations in their abundance and distribution. This dataset includes the outputs of Species Distribution Models (SDMs) for 5 key forage species, combining multiple survey datasets with environmental fields from a high-resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) developed at the University of California - Santa Cruz, and the Copernicus-Globcolour level 4 interpolated surface chlorophyll product ( The sardine and anchovy SDMs also included predictors indexing stock biomass (MacCall et al. 2016; Kuriyama et al. 2020; Kuriyama et al. 2022). As temporally continuous salinity fields are not available from the UCSC ROMS, we included a measure of the distance to the nearest major river (mean > 50,000 CFS discharge) in the herring SDM, to capture to association of this species with estuaries.

The species represented are Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus), and Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus). Results from two different SDMs are shown: Generalized Additive Models and Boosted Regression Trees, and both models predict the probability of occurrence of each species. The model outputs are generally similar, but the BRTs can be more prone to showing offshore artefacts, especially for market squid and jack mackerel. We used data from the NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Center Coastal Pelagic Species and Columbia River Predator (Emmett et al. 2006) trawl surveys to train all SDMs, with the exception of market squid, where juvenile salmon survey data were used instead (see Chasco et al. 2022 for description of these data). More details on preliminary versions of the sardine and anchovy SDMs are available in Muhling et al. (2019). Fennie et al. (2022) also describes the anchovy GAM. An additional manuscript in preparation will include description of up-to-date data, methods, and model structure. Until this is published, we strongly recommend contacting Barbara Muhling ( before working with this dataset, to ensure complete understanding of the details and caveats. Funding for this work was provided by NOAA Office of Sustainable Fisheries, and the NOAA Climate and Fisheries Adaptation program.

Chasco, B. E., Hunsicker, M. E., Jacobson, K. C., Welch, O. T., Morgan, C. A., Muhling, B. A., & Harding, J. A. (2022). Evidence of Temperature-Driven Shifts in Market Squid Doryteuthis opalescens Densities and Distribution in the California Current Ecosystem. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 14(1), e10190.

Emmett, R. L., Krutzikowsky, G. K., & Bentley, P. (2006). Abundance and distribution of pelagic piscivorous fishes in the Columbia River plume during spring/early summer 1998-2003: relationship to oceanographic conditions, forage fishes, and juvenile salmonids. Progress in Oceanography, 68(1), 1-26.

Fennie, H. W., Seary, R., Muhling, B. A., Bograd, S. J., Brodie, S., Cimino, M. A., ... & Tommasi, D. (2023). An anchovy ecosystem indicator of marine predator foraging and reproduction. Proceedings of the RoyalSociety B, 290(1992), 20222326.

Kuriyama, P. T., Zwolinski, J. P., Hill, K. T., & Crone, P. R. (2020). Assessment of the Pacific sardine resource in 2020 for US management in 2020-2021. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-628

Kuriyama, P. T., Zwolinski, J. P., Teo, S. L. H. & Hill, K. T. (2022). Assessment of the Northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) resource in 2021 for US management. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-665

MacCall, A. D., Sydeman, W. J., Davison, P. C., & Thayer, J. A. (2016). Recent collapse of northern anchovy biomass off California. Fisheries Research, 175, 87-94.

Muhling, B., Brodie, S., Snodgrass, O., Tommasi, D., Dewar, H., Childers, J., Jacox, M. Edwards, C. A., Xu, Y. & Snyder, S. (2019). Dynamic habitat use of albacore and their primary prey species in the California Current System. CalCOFI Reports 60: 1-15.
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_end String 2023-06-30T00:00:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_start String 1997-10-01T00:00:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String CCS Species Distribution Models for coastal pelagic species
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -133.9
dimension time   double nValues=9399, evenlySpaced=false, averageSpacing=1 day 0h 0m 46s
attribute time _CoordinateAxisType String Time
attribute time actual_range double 8.75664E8, 1.6880832E9
attribute time axis String T
attribute time ioos_category String Time
attribute time long_name String Time
attribute time standard_name String time
attribute time time_origin String 01-JAN-1970 00:00:00
attribute time units String seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
dimension latitude   double nValues=180, evenlySpaced=true, averageSpacing=0.09999999999999999
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude actual_range double 30.1, 48.0
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
dimension longitude   double nValues=185, evenlySpaced=true, averageSpacing=0.10000000000000003
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude actual_range double -133.9, -115.5
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable anchovy_BRT   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute anchovy_BRT _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute anchovy_BRT ioos_category String Other
attribute anchovy_BRT long_name String Predicted probability of northern anchovy occurrence from BRT
attribute anchovy_BRT units String /1
variable anchovy_GAM   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute anchovy_GAM _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute anchovy_GAM ioos_category String Other
attribute anchovy_GAM long_name String Predicted probability of northern anchovy occurrence from GAM
attribute anchovy_GAM units String /1
variable PacificMackerel_BRT   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute PacificMackerel_BRT _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute PacificMackerel_BRT ioos_category String Other
attribute PacificMackerel_BRT long_name String Predicted probability of Pacific mackerel occurrence from BRT
attribute PacificMackerel_BRT units String /1
variable PacificMackerel_GAM   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute PacificMackerel_GAM _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute PacificMackerel_GAM ioos_category String Other
attribute PacificMackerel_GAM long_name String Predicted probability of Pacific mackerel occurrence from GAM
attribute PacificMackerel_GAM units String /1
variable herring_BRT   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute herring_BRT _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute herring_BRT ioos_category String Other
attribute herring_BRT long_name String Predicted probability of Pacific herring occurrence from BRT
attribute herring_BRT units String /1
variable herring_GAM   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute herring_GAM _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute herring_GAM ioos_category String Other
attribute herring_GAM long_name String Predicted probability of Pacific herring occurrence from GAM
attribute herring_GAM units String /1
variable jackMackerel_BRT   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute jackMackerel_BRT _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute jackMackerel_BRT ioos_category String Other
attribute jackMackerel_BRT long_name String Predicted probability of Jack mackerel occurrence from BRT
attribute jackMackerel_BRT units String /1
variable jackMackerel_GAM   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute jackMackerel_GAM _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute jackMackerel_GAM ioos_category String Other
attribute jackMackerel_GAM long_name String Predicted probability of Jack mackerel occurrence from GAM
attribute jackMackerel_GAM units String /1
variable sardine_BRT   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute sardine_BRT _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute sardine_BRT ioos_category String Other
attribute sardine_BRT long_name String Predicted probability of Pacific sardine occurrence from BRT
attribute sardine_BRT units String /1
variable sardine_GAM   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute sardine_GAM _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute sardine_GAM ioos_category String Other
attribute sardine_GAM long_name String Predicted probability of Pacific sardine occurrence from GAM
attribute sardine_GAM units String /1
variable marketSquid_BRT   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute marketSquid_BRT _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute marketSquid_BRT ioos_category String Other
attribute marketSquid_BRT long_name String Predicted probability of market squid occurrence from BRT
attribute marketSquid_BRT units String /1
variable marketSquid_GAM   float time, latitude, longitude
attribute marketSquid_GAM _FillValue float 1.0E32
attribute marketSquid_GAM ioos_category String Other
attribute marketSquid_GAM long_name String Predicted probability of market squid occurrence from GAM
attribute marketSquid_GAM units String /1

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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